Definition of a stem cell.
Stem cells are cells that have the unique ability to multiply and transform – differentiate themselves – into other types of cells. All other types of cells in the body are so-called somatic and differentiated cells, because they each have a definite and precise role to play and can not be transformed. Some examples, the role of a cardiac cell is to contract. The role of a pancreatic cell is to produce insulin. A taste cell identifies the flavors present in food. An intestinal cell absorbs nutrients so that they are available in the tissues. Stem cells are mainly located in the bone marrow and have no other role than to transform into other types of cells.
The natural role of stem cells.
In the early 2000s, researchers had observed that blood stem cells had the ability to migrate to the brain and become brain cells (Mezey E. et al., 2000). At the same time, similar observations emerged, revealing that blood stem cells also had the ability to migrate to the heart and become cardiac cells (Orlic D. et al., 2001) or at the level of the liver to become hepatic cells (Jang YY et al., 2004). The traditional science of adult stem cells admitted at the time that bone marrow stem cells had the ability to transform themselves into blood cells strictly, being the precursors of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. The common idea was that they did not have the capacity to transform themselves into other cell types. So these observations were innovative and contradictory to the knowledge of the time. Based on these and other available data at the time, the published hypothesis (Jensen G and Drapeau C, 2002) was that bone marrow stem cells could be transformed into virtually any cell in the body. body and therefore constituted the natural system of repair of the human body (Figure 1). This hypothesis has become over the years, thanks to several hundred published articles strongly supporting this hypothesis, an established fact (for review, Drapeau C., 2010, Drapeau C. et al., 2012).
Figure 1: Figure 1: Bone marrow stem cells can be transformed into virtually any cell in the body. They constitute the natural system of repair of the human body.
Our natural body repair system: how does it work?
Whenever a tissue injury or injury occurs, it will release a first set of specific compounds, such as G-CSF *. These « signal » help molecules will circulate to migrate to the bone marrow and then trigger the release of stem cells from the bone marrow (Figure 2). During the next few days, a significant increase in the number of circulating stem cells can be observed. These stem cells that are circulating in the blood do not know which tissue has used this assistance (Figure 2). To be able to identify the tissue to which they must migrate, the affected tissue, a few days after the incident, will release a second generation of compounds, such as SDF-1 **. This guide molecule will attract and guide the stem cells locally to the tissue in need. When they circulate in the thin vessels of the affected tissue, in contact with these guiding molecules, the stem cells will migrate into the affected tissue and in contact with cellular debris, they will multiply and transform into cells of the local tissue (Figure 2). It is through this mechanism that stem cells constitute the natural repair system of the human body (Drapeau C. et al., 2012).
Stem cells thus meet the criteria for defining a system. A system of the human body:
- Is formed of tissues or organs
- Specific cell compound
- Which act on other tissues and organs
- Via a specific signaling / mechanism of action
- In order to promote a good state of health and the survival of the whole organism.
The natural system of repair of the human body is composed of specific cells, adult stem cells, mainly from the bone marrow, which act on other tissues by being mobilized by specific compounds (Leone et al., 2006), and migrating through the injured tissue, guided by a second generation of specific compound (Swenson et al., 2008), then multiplying and differentiating into local tissue. This repair mechanism allows the renewal of the tissues and organs of the body, in order to maintain the health of the whole organism. * G-CSF: Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor ** SDF-1: Stromal Cell-Derived Factor -1
Figure 2: The different steps that allow the stem cells to repair the tissues in need. Following an injury, the injured tissue releases compounds that trigger the release of bone marrow stem cells, which circulate in the blood to distribute to tissue following guiding molecules produced by the injured tissue. The stem cell will migrate into the tissue, multiply and then differentiate into local tissue.
Increase the number of circulating stem cells, a new therapeutic approach.
The aspect that has been studied most is the number of circulating stem cells. At equal injury, individuals with more circulating stem cells have better demonstrated ability to repair, for example, following a stroke or a lower frequency of cardiovascular events (Werner et al., 2005, Tsai et al. 2014). Indeed, having more stem cells in circulation means having more stem cells available for tissue repair. As a result of these observations, the collection of stem cells from a patient and reinjection of these cells started. The goal is to increase the number of circulating stem cells. After isolating stem cells from different sources, they are multiplied in the laboratory and then reinjected into the patient. Another more physiological approach is to increase the release of our own stem cells, called bone marrow stem cell mobilization. By increasing the number of circulating stem cells, the ability of these different tissues to repair themselves is optimized. The evaluation of this approach has resulted in the publication of hundreds of scientific articles revealing the benefit of increasing the number of circulating stem cells in the tissue repair process. These observations were made on a variety of organs, such as the heart (Leone et al., 2006, Orlic et al., 2001), or the pancreas (Voltarelli et al., 2007); (Drapeau et al. magazine, 2012).
Stem cells are responsible for daily tissue renewal.
Through these studies, it is essential to note this observation. The repair process, that is to say the one previously described namely, an affected tissue involving the release of stem cells which are then guided to the tissue to repair it, this phenomenon takes place every day in more quantity. low in the absence of injury, to renew the tissues. Indeed, each organ and tissue is renewed at different speeds. For example, the bowel is renewed in 3-5 days, the pancreas and the heart in several years. Thus every day, due to cellular aging and many factors, damaged, damaged cells need to be replaced by new cells. This renewal is also performed by stem cells that are released daily from the bone marrow and circulate in the blood, migrating to the tissue as needed.
Towards a new definition of « maintaining health »
This new function of stem cells thus generates a new definition of health maintenance. This would be in part a balance between two phenomena that occur continuously in our body, the daily loss of cells of a tissue, in parallel with its renewal. To maintain the tissues, cell replacement must occur at the same rate as cell loss (Figure 3: Case 1). If cell loss is faster or more important than tissue turnover, tissue degeneration and progressive loss of function take place, leading to the onset of disease (Figure 3: Case 2). For example, a loss of cells in the pancreas will progressively lead to insufficient insulin production that will no longer regulate blood sugar, that is to say, the level of sugar in the blood, leading to the appearance of a diabetes =
StemEnhance Ultra of Cerule
StemEnhance Ultra is composed of concentrates and extracts of primitive natural « superfoods ». A unique combination of freshwater microalgae and marine macroalgae. StemEnhance Ultra is the result of years of identifying, researching, and extracting compounds through the use of proprietary and patented technologies. The blend of StemEnhance and fucoidane offers a unique synergy that is enhanced by Mesenkine ™. An unprecedented extract of spirulina isolated through our patented extraction process.StemEnhance Ultra is the result of more than 18 years of research and is the most effective and scientifically validated wellness product on the market today.
What are the ingredients in StemEnhance Ultra?
►Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a blue-green algae that grows naturally in Klamath Lake in southern Oregon. The blue-green alga is the first source of life on earth and therefore symbolizes durability and longevity. It provides the body with a full range of micronutrients and nutraceutical compounds. Cerule uses an extract from the intracellular portion of AFA. That is, by a centrifugation and filtration process, to produce the StemEnhance.
►Arthrospira platensis, also known as spirulina, is just like AFA a blue-green algae. It provides a diverse range of micronutrients and specific compounds including a low molecular weight yellow compound. Ongoing research has revealed that this compound would help mobilize the source of wellbeing.
►Undaria pinnatifida is known in Japanese cuisine as wakame. Undaria pinnatifida is a brown seaweed commonly known as sea fern. Although it grows in many parts of the world, the wakame used in StemEnhance Ultra comes from the Patagonian and Tasmanian seas known for the purity of their waters. Cerule uses more than 85% purified fucoidan.
CHARACTERISTICS AND BENEFITS
AFA is a green blue algae of the cyanobacteria family. It grows naturally in Klamath Lake in southern Oregon. In the heart of a volcanic region and a preserved natural park. Klamath Lake is a unique ecosystem rich in sediments and minerals, conducive to the growth of algae. It offers a full range of macronutrients and micronutrients (Pietri A. M., 2011). Indeed, it is composed of more than 50% of proteins, and about 8% of fibers for example. It is also rich in micronutrients.
It is source of:
20 amino acids including 10 essential, characterized by an ideal profile given the recommended daily intake.
60 minerals and trace elements, especially it is distinguished by its high calcium (6mglg), and iron (0.32mg / g).
14 vitamins, including vitamins B1, B2, B12 especially.
It also provides multiple antioxidants such as carotenoids, lycopene, and chlorophyll and also contains PhenylEthylAmine (PEA). This molecule is naturally produced by the body in case of positive emotions. Finally, StemEnhance is clinically tested to mobilize your source of blien-être (Jensen et al., 2007). The mechanism of action of the extract enriched specifically in active molecules has been the subject of several publications and patents.
Wakame, Undaria pinnatifida, is a very popular seaweed in Japan, China and Korea for its culinary and medicinal attractions. This brown seaweed is picked in winter and spring, and enjoys the cool waters of the Atlantic Ocean. This alga contains a lot of fatty acids such as omega-3 that helps promote good cholesterol and cardiovascular health. Vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, sodium, iron, calcium, thiamine, proteins, trace elements (iodine) are also found. Wakame is a powerful antioxidant thanks to the fucoxanthin it contains. It is a carotenoid pigment giving wakame its brownish color. It also controls the process of photosynthesis, transforming light into energy. These antioxidant effects make it an ally against cancer, degeneration of the skin and hair, and an asset for health.
Adhrospira platensis, also known as spirulina, belongs, like the AFA, to the blue-green microalgae category. It grows in different sunny regions of the world such as the United States, Greece, Spain, Japan and India (Karkos et al., 2011). It brings a varied range of chewing and micronutrients. Its nutritional richness in proteins and vitamins has been used traditionally for more than 10 years as a supplementation throughout the world. It is also rich in certain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and in antioxidants like certain phenolic compounds (Finamore et al., 2017). Spirulina is traditionally known for its immunostimulant effect due to the presence of several polysaccharides. The latter stimulate certain types of immune cells, particularly macrophages and NK (Natural Killer) cells, which constitute the first line of defense of the immune system (Wu et al., 20’16). A low molecular weight yellow compound named Mesenkine has been discovered and its extraction and fabrication process has been patented by Cerule. Ongoing research has revealed that this compound would help mobilize your source of wellbeing.